We have been the DXA quality assurance site for many NIH-funded studies, CDC, and many more. Dr. Shepherd holds the patent that Hologic uses to measure body composition. He has also served as a past president of the ISCD and has either chaired or been a participant in all ISCD Position Development Conferences.

We work closely with the manufacturers and maintain workstations for Hologic and GE systems with the rights to use that software on scans other than those at our site. Our involvement in DXA quality assurance involves tasks such as,

  • Reviewing and revising DXA image data to ensure consistency by defining the same regions of interest within and among participants so that analyses of demographic differences and longitudinal change are assured that differences are not contaminated by differing definitions of body parts
  • Harmonizing data acquired for a Lunar DXA with data subsequently acquired from a Hologic scanner, so that investigators can examine changes in body composition and bone mineral density from different waves of participants, which may include creating a new master archive storage, cross-calibration equations, longitudinal correction and calibration of DXA data
  • Performing quality control checks on all DXA scans to insure correct participant alignment, appropriate location and accurate positioning of all regions of interest
  • Defining a protocol for ensuring consistency within and among participants’ DXA scan
  • Establishing procedures for continued quality control checks, reanalysis, and data generation for ongoing scans, which may include site manuals, training presentations/materials for site personnel, methods for validating DXA personnel

Below you will find past and current QA studies conducted at SRL, as well as QA-related publications. For inquiries, please contact us for more information.

Current Studies

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan analysis and quality control review for NHANES 2018-2022

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

In this study, we are working on NHANES 2018-2022 to review the existing procedures manuals and update as needed by detailing procedures for obtaining the DXA scans for the protocol, perform longitudinal calibrations and cross-calibrations, and provide correction factors, if necessary. Specifically, we will be looking at DXA scans of the hip, spine, VFA spine, and whole body acquired at NHANES mobile examination centers. This data, along with data from similar studies will be used to examine age, sex, and racial/ethnic differences during the life cycle and to explore the relationship between body composition and behavioral factors such as diet and physical activity.

IMPAACT cover photo

IMPAACT 2009: Pharmacokinetics, Feasibility, Acceptability, and Safety of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for Primary HIV Prevention during Pregnancy and Breast Feeding in Adolescents and Young Women and their Infants

IMPAACT 2010: Phase III Study of the Virologic Efficacy and Safety of Dolutegravir-Containing versus Efavirenz-Containing Antiretroviral Therapy Regimens in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women and their Infants

International Maternal Pediatric Adoloscent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) Network

Our work with IMPAACT is divided between two studies: IMPAACT 2009 and IMPAACT 2010. IMPAACT 2009 is a study that evaluates daily oral Truvada PrEP in pregnant and lactating women. IMPAACT 2010 is a Phase III study of Virologic Efficacy and safety of Dolutegravir-containing versus Efavirenz-containing Antiretroviral therapy regimens in HIV-1-infected pregnant women and their infants. In both studies, our role is to monitor changes in bone mineral density (BMD), which will include central analysis of spine, femur, and whold body DXA scans. The IMPAACT 2009 study provides an important opportunity to study the effect of PrEP use and lactation on bone mass in young women who are yet to achieve peak bone mass. The IMPAACT 2010 study represents an important opportunity to learn more about the effects of the regimens on maternal and infant bone and renal outcomes.

Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS)


The HANDLS study is a multidisciplinary, community-based, prospective longitudinal epidemiologic study examining the influence of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on the development of age-related health disparities among socioeconomically diverse African Americans and whites in Baltimore. This study investigates whether health disparities develop or persist due to differences in SES, differences in race, or their interaction. Similar to our work with NHANES, we are working on HANDLS to provide DXA analysis and quality control for their body composition and bone mineral density data. We are in the process of establishing procedures manuals and will review/update them as needed by detailing procedures for obtaining the DXA scans for the protocol, perform longitudinal calibrations and cross calibrations, and provide corrections factors, if necessary.

Extended use of NHANES Visceral Adiposity Cancer Risk Factors to GE Systems

The NHANES VAT measures will become the national reference data for VAT upon its release since there isn’t any other representative sample of VAT. However, the NHANES data was acquired on one make of DXA system, Hologic. VAT measures on Hologic DXA systems are substantially different than on GE systems, which complicate the pooling of VAT measures from different systems in multi-center clinical trials and make it difficult to compare VAT measures over time when a patient is scanned on different systems. Furthermore, with GE systems accounting for approximately 50% of the DXA clinical installation base, this means that half of the DXA users won’t be able to access the new NHANES VAT reference data. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between Hologic and GE Lunar system for VAT measurements in children and adults, repost the NHANES VAT data in GE units, and provide cutoff points relevant for high risk of cancer and metabolic conditions.

Past Studies

Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY)

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

The TODAY study was a nationwide research study to compare the efficacy and safety of three interventions to treat adolescents and youth with type 2 diabetes. The primary outcome was time to treatment failure due to loss of glycemic control, defined as hemoglobin A1c >= 8% for 6 months.  Secondary outcomes included measures of beta cell function and insulin resistance, body composition, nutrition, physical activity and aerobic fitness, cardiovascular risk factors, microvascular complications, quality of life, and psychological outcomes.  The influence of individual and family behaviors on treatment response and the relative cost-effectiveness of the three treatment arms were also evaluated. This study has provided information fundamental to improving treatments and outcomes for youth with type 2 diabetes. Learn more.

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study


The BMDCS (2001-2011) offered an unprecedented opportunity to identify predictors of the timing and magnitude of peak bone mass, a major determinant of osteoporosis in later adulthood. BMDCS investigators provided reference curves for bone accrual and linear growth velocity that are comparable to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention linear growth and weight gain curves for children and adolescents. The reference curves generated by this carefully executed study provided the gold standard for normal bone accrual for generations to come. The study’s results enable practitioners to identify the adverse effects that chronic illness has on bone. Additionally, the results have clarified the effects that the timing of pubertal onset have on bone density and linear growth, as well as the need for height adjustment for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry results in children. Learn more.

BeMyKids Study: Bone Mineral Accretion in Young Children

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Led by Dr. Heidi Kalkwarf, the BeMyKids study seeks to understand bone mineral accrual in children 1 to 5 years of age. A glaring deficit is the inability to evaluate bone health of children younger than 5 years due to lack of appropriate bone density reference data. This gap is problematic as there are numerous clinical conditions (e.g., neuromuscular disease, cancer, glucocorticoid treatment, extreme prematurity) that threaten bone health in this young age group. The findings from this study will facilitate medical care of children with chronic medical conditions that threaten bone health, and it will develop and validate novel methods for bone and body composition assessment in this age range. It will also add generalizable knowledge to enhance understanding of the growing skeleton, and its relationship to motor and somatic development. Learn more.

Safety Study of a Tenofovir-containing Drug Regimen for the Prevention of Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV and HBV – Tenofovir in Pregnancy (TiP) Study

TiP Study on the ClinicalTrials.gov site

The Tenofovir in Pregnancy (TiP) study was designed to test the safety of an antiretroviral combination containing TDF in pregnant women co-infected with HIV and HBV and their infants in Guangxi, China. The study’s objectives were to evaluate the renal, liver, and bone mineral density effects of TDF, administered from the second trimester of pregnancy, to women and their infants through a year postnatally. Learn more.

IMPAACT cover photo

IMPAACT P1084s: Maternal and Infant Monitoring for Evidence of Toxicity Related to Tenofovir Exposure: The Bone and Kidney Health Substudy of PROMISE

International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Network (IMPAACT)

P1084s is a nested, comparative substudy of HIV-1-infected women and their infants randomized in PROMISE (Promoting Maternal and Infant Survival Everywhere) to receive a maternal tenofovir-containing regimen or no maternal tenofovir-containing regimen during pregnancy or breastfeeding for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. The substudy was designed to examine bone, renal and growth outcomes of tenofovir exposure during pregnancy or during breastfeeding in 1077BF and 1077FF. Learn more.

DXA QA/QC Publications

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Engmann, N J; Scott, C; Jensen, M R; Winham, S J; Ma, L; Brandt, K R; Mahmoudzadeh, A; Whaley, D H; Hruska, C B; Wu, F F; Norman, A D; Hiatt, R A; Heine, J; Shepherd, J; Pankratz, V S; Miglioretti, D L; Kerlikowske, K; Vachon, C M

Longitudinal Changes in Volumetric Breast Density in Healthy Women across the Menopausal Transition Journal Article

In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 28 (8), pp. 1324-1330, 2019, ISSN: 1538-7755 (Electronic) 1055-9965 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Body Mass Index, Breast, Breast Density, cytology, Female, Humans, Longitudinal Studies, Mammography, methods, Middle Aged, pathology, physiology, Postmenopause, Premenopause, Risk Factors, Women's Health

Engmann, N J; Scott, C G; Jensen, M R; Winham, S; Miglioretti, D L; Ma, L; Brandt, K; Mahmoudzadeh, A; Whaley, D H; Hruska, C; Wu, F; Norman, A D; Hiatt, R A; Heine, J; Shepherd, J; Pankratz, V S; Vachon, C M; Kerlikowske, K

Combined effect of volumetric breast density and body mass index on breast cancer risk Journal Article

In: Breast Cancer Res Treat, 177 (1), pp. 165-173, 2019, ISSN: 1573-7217 (Electronic) 0167-6806 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: 80 and over, Adult, Aged, Body Mass Index, Breast cancer, Breast Density, Breast Neoplasms, Case-Control Studies, Disease Susceptibility, Early Detection of Cancer, epidemiology, etiology, Female, Humans, mammographic density, Mammography, Mass Screening, Menopause, Middle Aged, pathology, Public Health Surveillance, Registries, Risk

Houghton, L C; Jung, S; Troisi, R; LeBlanc, E S; Snetselaar, L G; Hylton, N M; Klifa, C; Horn, L Van; Paris, K; Shepherd, J A; Hoover, R N; Dorgan, J F

Pubertal timing and breast density in young women: a prospective cohort study Journal Article

In: Breast Cancer Res, 21 (1), pp. 122, 2019, ISSN: 1465-542X (Electronic) 1465-5411 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Adolescent, Adult, Body Mass Index, Body Size, Breast, Breast cancer, Breast Density, Breast Neoplasms, Child, diagnosis, diagnostic imaging, Female, growth & development, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Menarche, methods, physiology, physiopathology, Prospective Studies, Puberty, Risk Factors, Sexual Maturation, Time Factors

Lim, U; Monroe, K R; Buchthal, S; Fan, B; Cheng, I; Kristal, B S; Lampe, J W; Hullar, M A; Franke, A A; Stram, D O; Wilkens, L R; Shepherd, J; Ernst, T; Marchand, L Le

Propensity for Intra-abdominal and Hepatic Adiposity Varies Among Ethnic Groups Journal Article

In: Gastroenterology, 156 (4), pp. 966-975 e10, 2019, ISSN: 1528-0012 (Electronic) 0016-5085 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Absorptiometry, Adiposity, African Americans, Aged, Asian Americans, Body Composition, Body Mass Index, diagnostic imaging, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, epidemiology, Ethnic Groups, ethnology, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Hawaii, Hispanic Americans, Humans, Intra-Abdominal Fat, Japan, Liver, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Metabolic Syndrome, Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Oceanic Ancestry Group, Photon, Prevalence, statistics & numerical data, Torso, United States, Weight Gain

Shieh, Y; Scott, C G; Jensen, M R; Norman, A D; Bertrand, K A; Pankratz, V S; Brandt, K R; Visscher, D W; Shepherd, J A; Tamimi, R M; Vachon, C M; Kerlikowske, K

Body mass index, mammographic density, and breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor subtype Journal Article

In: Breast Cancer Res, 21 (1), pp. 48, 2019, ISSN: 1465-542X (Electronic) 1465-5411 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Aged, Biomarkers, Body Mass Index, Breast Density, Breast Neoplasms, Case-Control Studies, epidemiology, Estrogen, etiology, Female, genetics, Humans, Mammographic breast density, Middle Aged, Odds Ratio, pathology, Prevalence, Prevention, Receptors, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Tumor

Alba, D L; Farooq, J A; Lin, M Y C; Schafer, A L; Shepherd, J; Koliwad, S K

Subcutaneous Fat Fibrosis Links Obesity to Insulin Resistance in Chinese Americans Journal Article

In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 103 (9), pp. 3194-3204, 2018, ISSN: 1945-7197 (Electronic) 0021-972X (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Abdominal, Adiposity, Adult, Aged, Anthropometry, Asian Americans, blood, Blood Glucose, Body Composition, Body Mass Index, ethnology, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Fibrosis, Humans, Hydroxyproline, Insulin Resistance, Male, metabolism, methods, Middle Aged, Obesity, pathology, physiology, physiopathology, statistics & numerical data, Subcutaneous Fat

Binder, A M; Corvalan, C; Mericq, V; Pereira, A; Santos, J L; Horvath, S; Shepherd, J; Michels, K B

Faster ticking rate of the epigenetic clock is associated with faster pubertal development in girls Journal Article

In: Epigenetics, 13 (1), pp. 85-94, 2018, ISSN: 1559-2308 (Electronic) 1559-2294 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Absorptiometry, Adolescent, Body Mass Index, Breast, Breast Density, Child, Chile, DNA methylation, Epigenesis, epigenetic clock, Female, Genetic, genetics, growth & development, Humans, Menarche, Photon, Puberty, Sexual Maturation, thelarche, Time Factors

Hong, J; Hatchell, K E; Bradfield, J P; Bjonnes, A; Chesi, A; Lai, C Q; Langefeld, C D; Lu, L; Lu, Y; Lutsey, P L; Musani, S K; Nalls, M A; Robinson-Cohen, C; Roizen, J D; Saxena, R; Tucker, K L; Ziegler, J T; Arking, D E; Bis, J C; Boerwinkle, E; Bottinger, E P; Bowden, D W; Gilsanz, V; Houston, D K; Kalkwarf, H J; Kelly, A; Lappe, J M; Liu, Y; Michos, E D; Oberfield, S E; Palmer, N D; Rotter, J I; Sapkota, B; Shepherd, J A; Wilson, J G; Basu, S; de Boer, I H; Divers, J; Freedman, B I; Grant, S F A; Hakanarson, H; Harris, T B; Kestenbaum, B R; Kritchevsky, S B; Loos, R J F; Norris, J M; Norwood, A F; Ordovas, J M; Pankow, J S; Psaty, B M; Sanghera, D K; Wagenknecht, L E; Zemel, B S; Meigs, J; Dupuis, J; Florez, J C; Wang, T; Liu, C T; Engelman, C D; Billings, L K

Transethnic Evaluation Identifies Low-Frequency Loci Associated With 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Journal Article

In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 103 (4), pp. 1380-1392, 2018, ISSN: 1945-7197 (Electronic) 0021-972X (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Adolescent, Adult, African Americans, Aged, analogs & derivatives, blood, Body Mass Index, Child, epidemiology, ethnology, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Gene Frequency, Genetic Loci, genetics, Genome-Wide Association Study, Hispanic Americans, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, United States, Vitamin D, Vitamin D Deficiency, Young Adult

McCormack, S E; Chesi, A; Mitchell, J A; Roy, S M; Cousminer, D L; Kalkwarf, H J; Lappe, J M; Gilsanz, V; Oberfield, S E; Shepherd, J A; Mahboubi, S; Winer, K K; Kelly, A; Grant, S F; Zemel, B S

Relative Skeletal Maturation and Population Ancestry in Nonobese Children and Adolescents Journal Article

In: J Bone Miner Res, 32 (1), pp. 115-124, 2017, ISSN: 1523-4681 (Electronic) 0884-0431 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Adolescent, Age Determination by Skeleton, Age Distribution, Body Composition, Body Height, Body Mass Index, bone age, Bone development, Child, Continental Population Groups, epidemiology, Female, genetics, growth, Humans, Male, Obesity, pediatric endocrinology, Population, population ancestry, Preschool, Regression Analysis, Sexual Maturation, skeletal maturation, Young Adult

Strand, F; Humphreys, K; Eriksson, M; Li, J; Andersson, T M; Tornberg, S; Azavedo, E; Shepherd, J; Hall, P; Czene, K

Longitudinal fluctuation in mammographic percent density differentiates between interval and screen-detected breast cancer Journal Article

In: Int J Cancer, 140 (1), pp. 34-40, 2017, ISSN: 1097-0215 (Electronic) 0020-7136 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Aged, Body Mass Index, Breast cancer, Breast Density, Breast Neoplasms, Cancer screening, diagnostic imaging, drug therapy, Early detection, Early Detection of Cancer, Female, Hormone Replacement Therapy, Humans, Interval cancer, Logistic Models, Longitudinal study, mammographic density, Mammography, methods, Middle Aged, Odds Ratio, pathology, Postmenopause

Avila, J I; Ng, B K; Kotowski, L; Hinton, B J; Shepherd, J

Can Racial Differences in Resting Metabolic Rate be Explained by Body Composition? Journal Article

In: Obesity (Silver Spring), 24 (6), pp. 1203, 2016, ISSN: 1930-739X (Electronic) 1930-7381 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Basal Metabolism, Body Composition, Body Mass Index

Malkov, S; Shepherd, J A; Scott, C G; Tamimi, R M; Ma, L; Bertrand, K A; Couch, F; Jensen, M R; Mahmoudzadeh, A P; Fan, B; Norman, A; Brandt, K R; Pankratz, V S; Vachon, C M; Kerlikowske, K

Mammographic texture and risk of breast cancer by tumor type and estrogen receptor status Journal Article

In: Breast Cancer Res, 18 (1), pp. 122, 2016, ISSN: 1465-542X (Electronic) 1465-5411 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Aged, Body Mass Index, Breast Density, Breast Neoplasms, Carcinoma, Case-Control Studies, diagnosis, diagnostic imaging, Estrogen, Female, Fractals, Humans, Intraductal, Logistic Models, Mammography, Mass Screening, metabolism, methods, Middle Aged, Noninfiltrating, Receptors, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors

Setiawan, V W; Lim, U; Lipworth, L; Lu, S C; Shepherd, J; Ernst, T; Wilkens, L R; Henderson, B E; Marchand, L Le

Sex and Ethnic Differences in the Association of Obesity With Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Journal Article

In: Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 14 (2), pp. 309-16, 2016, ISSN: 1542-7714 (Electronic) 1542-3565 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Aged, Body Mass Index, California, Carcinoma, Case-Control Studies, complications, epidemiology, Ethnic Groups, Female, Hawaii, Hepatocellular, Humans, Incidence, Liver Cancer, Male, MEC Study, Middle Aged, Obesity, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Sex Factors, Visceral Adiposity

Bertrand, K A; Baer, H J; Orav, E J; Klifa, C; Shepherd, J A; Horn, L Van; Snetselaar, L; Stevens, V J; Hylton, N M; Dorgan, J F

Body fatness during childhood and adolescence and breast density in young women: a prospective analysis Journal Article

In: Breast Cancer Res, 17 , pp. 95, 2015, ISSN: 1465-542X (Electronic) 1465-5411 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: abnormalities, Adipose Tissue, Adiposity, Adult, Age Factors, Body Mass Index, Breast Density, Breast Neoplasms, Child, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Human, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mammary Glands, Prospective Studies

Jones, J A; Hartman, T J; Klifa, C S; Coffman, D L; Mitchell, D C; Vernarelli, J A; Snetselaar, L G; Horn, L Van; Stevens, V J; Robson, A M; Himes, J H; Shepherd, J A; Dorgan, J F

Dietary energy density is positively associated with breast density among young women Journal Article

In: J Acad Nutr Diet, 115 (3), pp. 353-9, 2015, ISSN: 2212-2672 (Print) 2212-2672 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Absorptiometry, Adiposity, Adult, anatomy & histology, Body Composition, Body Mass Index, Breast, Breast cancer, Breast Density, Cross-Sectional Studies, Diet, Dietary energy density, Energy Intake, Feeding Behavior, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, methods, Multivariate Analysis, Photon, physioalogy, physiology, Premenopausal women, ultrastaructure

Gierach, G L; Geller, B M; Shepherd, J A; Patel, D A; Vacek, P M; Weaver, D L; Chicoine, R E; Pfeiffer, R M; Fan, B; Mahmoudzadeh, A P; Wang, J; Johnson, J M; Herschorn, S D; Brinton, L A; Sherman, M E

Comparison of mammographic density assessed as volumes and areas among women undergoing diagnostic image-guided breast biopsy Journal Article

In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 23 (11), pp. 2338-48, 2014, ISSN: 1538-7755 (Electronic) 1055-9965 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: abnormalities, Age Factors, Aged, Body Mass Index, Breast, Breast Density, Breast Neoplasms, Computer-Assisted, Cross-Sectional Studies, diagnostic imaging, epidemiology, Female, Human, Humans, Image Interpretation, Image-Guided Biopsy, Mammary Glands, Menopause, Middle Aged, Organ Size, pathology, Prospective Studies, Radiography, Risk Factors, Smoking

Gregson, C L; Paggiosi, M A; Crabtree, N; Steel, S A; McCloskey, E; Duncan, E L; Fan, B; Shepherd, J A; Fraser, W D; Smith, G D; Tobias, J H

Analysis of body composition in individuals with high bone mass reveals a marked increase in fat mass in women but not men Journal Article

In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 98 (2), pp. 818-28, 2013, ISSN: 1945-7197 (Electronic) 0021-972X (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: 80 and over, Adipose Tissue, Adult, Age Factors, Aged, blood, Body Composition, Body Mass Index, Bone and Bones, Bone Density, Case-Control Studies, diagnostic imaging, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Osteocalcin, physiology, Radiography, Sex Factors

Wilson, J P; Strauss, B J; Fan, B; Duewer, F W; Shepherd, J A

Improved 4-compartment body-composition model for a clinically accessible measure of total body protein Journal Article

In: Am J Clin Nutr, 97 (3), pp. 497-504, 2013, ISSN: 1938-3207 (Electronic) 0002-9165 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Absorptiometry, Adult, Analysis, Australia, Biological, Body Composition, Body Mass Index, Body Water, Bone Density, Calibration, chemistry, Electric Impedance, Female, Humans, Male, methods, Middle Aged, Models, Neutron Activation Analysis, Photon, Proteins, Retrospective Studies, Young Adult

Jonas, M M; Balistreri, W; Gonzalez-Peralta, R P; Haber, B; Lobritto, S; Mohan, P; Molleston, J P; Murray, K F; Narkewicz, M R; Rosenthal, P; Schwarz, K B; Barton, B A; Shepherd, J A; Mitchell, P D; Duggan, C

Pegylated interferon for chronic hepatitis C in children affects growth and body composition: results from the pediatric study of hepatitis C (PEDS-C) trial Journal Article

In: Hepatology, 56 (2), pp. 523-31, 2012, ISSN: 1527-3350 (Electronic) 0270-9139 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: administration & dosage, Adolescent, adverse effects, Antiviral Agents, Body Composition, Body Height, Body Mass Index, Body Weight, chemically induced, Child, Chronic, Cohort Studies, Combination, drug effects, drug therapy, Eating, Fatty Liver, Female, Growth Disorders, Hepatitis C, Humans, Interferon-alpha, Liver Cirrhosis, Male, Polyethylene Glycols, Preschool, Recombinant Proteins, Ribavirin, virology

Wren, T A; Shepherd, J A; Kalkwarf, H J; Zemel, B S; Lappe, J M; Oberfield, S; Dorey, F J; Winer, K K; Gilsanz, V

Racial disparity in fracture risk between white and nonwhite children in the United States Journal Article

In: Journal of Pediatrics, 161 (6), pp. 1035-40, 2012, ISSN: 1097-6833 (Electronic) 0022-3476 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Absorptiometry, Adiposity, Adolescent, African Americans, Age Determination by Skeleton, Asian Americans, Body Mass Index, Bone, Calcium, Child, Dietary, epidemiology, ethnology, etiology, European Continental Ancestry Group, Exercise, Female, Fractures, Health Status Disparities, Health Surveys, Hispanic Americans, Humans, Incidence, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Photon, Proportional Hazards Models, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Sexual Maturation, United States

Novotny, R; Daida, Y; Morimoto, Y; Shepherd, J; Maskarinec, G

Puberty, body fat, and breast density in girls of several ethnic groups Journal Article

In: Am J Hum Biol, 23 (3), pp. 359-65, 2011, ISSN: 1520-6300 (Electronic) 1042-0533 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Absorptiometry, Adipose Tissue, Adolescent, anatomy & histology, Body Mass Index, Breast, Breast Neoplasms, Child, cytology, diagnostic imaging, epidemiology, Ethnic Groups, ethnology, Female, growth & development, Hawaii, Humans, Mammography, Obesity, Photon, Puberty, Risk Factors

Flegal, K M; Ogden, C L; Yanovski, J A; Freedman, D S; Shepherd, J A; Graubard, B I; Borrud, L G

High adiposity and high body mass index-for-age in US children and adolescents overall and by race-ethnic group Journal Article

In: Am J Clin Nutr, 91 (4), pp. 1020-6, 2010, ISSN: 1938-3207 (Electronic) 0002-9165 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Absorptiometry, Adiposity, Adolescent, Adult, Body Mass Index, Child, diagnosis, epidemiology, ethnology, Female, Hispanic Americans, Humans, Male, Mass Screening, methods, Obesity, Photon, Prevalence, Reference Values, United States, Young Adult

Flegal, K M; Shepherd, J A; Looker, A C; Graubard, B I; Borrud, L G; Ogden, C L; Harris, T B; Everhart, J E; Schenker, N

Comparisons of percentage body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-stature ratio in adults Journal Article

In: Am J Clin Nutr, 89 (2), pp. 500-8, 2009, ISSN: 1938-3207 (Electronic) 0002-9165 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: 80 and over, Absorptiometry, Adipose Tissue, Adiposity, Adult, Aged, Body Composition, Body Mass Index, Cross-Sectional Studies, diagnosis, DXA QA/QC, epidemiology, Female, Health Surveys, Humans, Male, metabolism, methods, Middle Aged, Obesity, Photon, physiology, Predictive Value of Tests, United States, Waist Circumference, Waist-Hip Ratio, Young Adult