We have been the DXA quality assurance site for many NIH-funded studies, CDC, and many more. Dr. Shepherd holds the patent that Hologic uses to measure body composition. He has also served as a past president of the ISCD and has either chaired or been a participant in all ISCD Position Development Conferences.

We work closely with the manufacturers and maintain workstations for Hologic and GE systems with the rights to use that software on scans other than those at our site. Our involvement in DXA quality assurance involves tasks such as,

  • Reviewing and revising DXA image data to ensure consistency by defining the same regions of interest within and among participants so that analyses of demographic differences and longitudinal change are assured that differences are not contaminated by differing definitions of body parts
  • Harmonizing data acquired for a Lunar DXA with data subsequently acquired from a Hologic scanner, so that investigators can examine changes in body composition and bone mineral density from different waves of participants, which may include creating a new master archive storage, cross-calibration equations, longitudinal correction and calibration of DXA data
  • Performing quality control checks on all DXA scans to insure correct participant alignment, appropriate location and accurate positioning of all regions of interest
  • Defining a protocol for ensuring consistency within and among participants’ DXA scan
  • Establishing procedures for continued quality control checks, reanalysis, and data generation for ongoing scans, which may include site manuals, training presentations/materials for site personnel, methods for validating DXA personnel

Below you will find past and current QA studies conducted at SRL, as well as QA-related publications. For inquiries, please contact us for more information.

Current Studies


Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan analysis and quality control review for NHANES 2018-2022

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

In this study, we are working on NHANES 2018-2022 to review the existing procedures manuals and update as needed by detailing procedures for obtaining the DXA scans for the protocol, perform longitudinal calibrations and cross-calibrations, and provide correction factors, if necessary. Specifically, we will be looking at DXA scans of the hip, spine, VFA spine, and whole body acquired at NHANES mobile examination centers. This data, along with data from similar studies will be used to examine age, sex, and racial/ethnic differences during the life cycle and to explore the relationship between body composition and behavioral factors such as diet and physical activity.

IMPAACT cover photo

IMPAACT 2009: Pharmacokinetics, Feasibility, Acceptability, and Safety of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for Primary HIV Prevention during Pregnancy and Breast Feeding in Adolescents and Young Women and their Infants

IMPAACT 2010: Phase III Study of the Virologic Efficacy and Safety of Dolutegravir-Containing versus Efavirenz-Containing Antiretroviral Therapy Regimens in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women and their Infants

International Maternal Pediatric Adoloscent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) Network

Our work with IMPAACT is divided between two studies: IMPAACT 2009 and IMPAACT 2010. IMPAACT 2009 is a study that evaluates daily oral Truvada PrEP in pregnant and lactating women. IMPAACT 2010 is a Phase III study of Virologic Efficacy and safety of Dolutegravir-containing versus Efavirenz-containing Antiretroviral therapy regimens in HIV-1-infected pregnant women and their infants. In both studies, our role is to monitor changes in bone mineral density (BMD), which will include central analysis of spine, femur, and whold body DXA scans. The IMPAACT 2009 study provides an important opportunity to study the effect of PrEP use and lactation on bone mass in young women who are yet to achieve peak bone mass. The IMPAACT 2010 study represents an important opportunity to learn more about the effects of the regimens on maternal and infant bone and renal outcomes.

Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS)

HANDLS

The HANDLS study is a multidisciplinary, community-based, prospective longitudinal epidemiologic study examining the influence of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on the development of age-related health disparities among socioeconomically diverse African Americans and whites in Baltimore. This study investigates whether health disparities develop or persist due to differences in SES, differences in race, or their interaction. Similar to our work with NHANES, we are working on HANDLS to provide DXA analysis and quality control for their body composition and bone mineral density data. We are in the process of establishing procedures manuals and will review/update them as needed by detailing procedures for obtaining the DXA scans for the protocol, perform longitudinal calibrations and cross calibrations, and provide corrections factors, if necessary.

Extended use of NHANES Visceral Adiposity Cancer Risk Factors to GE Systems

The NHANES VAT measures will become the national reference data for VAT upon its release since there isn’t any other representative sample of VAT. However, the NHANES data was acquired on one make of DXA system, Hologic. VAT measures on Hologic DXA systems are substantially different than on GE systems, which complicate the pooling of VAT measures from different systems in multi-center clinical trials and make it difficult to compare VAT measures over time when a patient is scanned on different systems. Furthermore, with GE systems accounting for approximately 50% of the DXA clinical installation base, this means that half of the DXA users won’t be able to access the new NHANES VAT reference data. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between Hologic and GE Lunar system for VAT measurements in children and adults, repost the NHANES VAT data in GE units, and provide cutoff points relevant for high risk of cancer and metabolic conditions.

Past Studies


Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY)

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

The TODAY study was a nationwide research study to compare the efficacy and safety of three interventions to treat adolescents and youth with type 2 diabetes. The primary outcome was time to treatment failure due to loss of glycemic control, defined as hemoglobin A1c >= 8% for 6 months.  Secondary outcomes included measures of beta cell function and insulin resistance, body composition, nutrition, physical activity and aerobic fitness, cardiovascular risk factors, microvascular complications, quality of life, and psychological outcomes.  The influence of individual and family behaviors on treatment response and the relative cost-effectiveness of the three treatment arms were also evaluated. This study has provided information fundamental to improving treatments and outcomes for youth with type 2 diabetes. Learn more.

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study

BMDCS

The BMDCS (2001-2011) offered an unprecedented opportunity to identify predictors of the timing and magnitude of peak bone mass, a major determinant of osteoporosis in later adulthood. BMDCS investigators provided reference curves for bone accrual and linear growth velocity that are comparable to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention linear growth and weight gain curves for children and adolescents. The reference curves generated by this carefully executed study provided the gold standard for normal bone accrual for generations to come. The study’s results enable practitioners to identify the adverse effects that chronic illness has on bone. Additionally, the results have clarified the effects that the timing of pubertal onset have on bone density and linear growth, as well as the need for height adjustment for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry results in children. Learn more.

BeMyKids Study: Bone Mineral Accretion in Young Children

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Led by Dr. Heidi Kalkwarf, the BeMyKids study seeks to understand bone mineral accrual in children 1 to 5 years of age. A glaring deficit is the inability to evaluate bone health of children younger than 5 years due to lack of appropriate bone density reference data. This gap is problematic as there are numerous clinical conditions (e.g., neuromuscular disease, cancer, glucocorticoid treatment, extreme prematurity) that threaten bone health in this young age group. The findings from this study will facilitate medical care of children with chronic medical conditions that threaten bone health, and it will develop and validate novel methods for bone and body composition assessment in this age range. It will also add generalizable knowledge to enhance understanding of the growing skeleton, and its relationship to motor and somatic development. Learn more.

Safety Study of a Tenofovir-containing Drug Regimen for the Prevention of Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV and HBV – Tenofovir in Pregnancy (TiP) Study

TiP Study on the ClinicalTrials.gov site

The Tenofovir in Pregnancy (TiP) study was designed to test the safety of an antiretroviral combination containing TDF in pregnant women co-infected with HIV and HBV and their infants in Guangxi, China. The study’s objectives were to evaluate the renal, liver, and bone mineral density effects of TDF, administered from the second trimester of pregnancy, to women and their infants through a year postnatally. Learn more.

IMPAACT cover photo

IMPAACT P1084s: Maternal and Infant Monitoring for Evidence of Toxicity Related to Tenofovir Exposure: The Bone and Kidney Health Substudy of PROMISE

International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Network (IMPAACT)

P1084s is a nested, comparative substudy of HIV-1-infected women and their infants randomized in PROMISE (Promoting Maternal and Infant Survival Everywhere) to receive a maternal tenofovir-containing regimen or no maternal tenofovir-containing regimen during pregnancy or breastfeeding for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. The substudy was designed to examine bone, renal and growth outcomes of tenofovir exposure during pregnancy or during breastfeeding in 1077BF and 1077FF. Learn more.

DXA QA/QC Publications

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Fu, B C; Hullar, M A J; Randolph, T W; Franke, A A; Monroe, K R; Cheng, I; Wilkens, L R; Shepherd, J A; Madeleine, M M; Marchand, L Le; Lim, U; Lampe, J W

Associations of plasma trimethylamine N-oxide, choline, carnitine, and betaine with inflammatory and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers and the fecal microbiome in the Multiethnic Cohort Adiposity Phenotype Study Journal Article

In: Am J Clin Nutr, 111 (6), pp. 1226-1234, 2020, ISSN: 1938-3207 (Electronic) 0002-9165 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Adiposity, Aged, Bacteria, Betaine, Biomarkers, blood, cardiometabolic, Cardiovascular Diseases, Carnitine, Choline, classification, Cohort Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, ethnology, Female, Gastrointestinal Microbiome, genetics, Humans, immunology, inflammation, isolation & purification, Male, metabolism, Methylamines, microbiology, microbiome, Middle Aged, tmao

Hada, M; Oh, H; Pfeiffer, R M; Falk, R T; Fan, S; Mullooly, M; Pollak, M; Geller, B; Vacek, P M; Weaver, D; Shepherd, J; Wang, J; Fan, B; Mahmoudzadeh, A P; Malkov, S; Herschorn, S; Brinton, L A; Sherman, M E; Gierach, G L

Relationship of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I and binding proteins 1-7 with mammographic density among women undergoing image-guided diagnostic breast biopsy Journal Article

In: Breast Cancer Res, 21 (1), pp. 81, 2019, ISSN: 1465-542X (Electronic) 1465-5411 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Adult, Biomarkers, blood, Breast Density, Breast neoplasm, Breast Neoplasms, Cross-Sectional Studies, diagnosis, Female, Humans, Image-Guided Biopsy, Insulin-like growth factor, Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins, Insulin-Like Growth Factor I, mammographic density, Mammography, metabolism, Middle Aged, Risk Factors

Mullooly, M; Puvanesarajah, S; Fan, S; Pfeiffer, R M; Olsson, L T; Hada, M; Kirk, E L; Vacek, P M; Weaver, D L; Shepherd, J; Mahmoudzadeh, A; Wang, J; Malkov, S; Johnson, J M; Hewitt, S M; Herschorn, S D; Sherman, M E; Troester, M A; Gierach, G L

Using Digital Pathology to Understand Epithelial Characteristics of Benign Breast Disease among Women Undergoing Diagnostic Image-Guided Breast Biopsy Journal Article

In: Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 12 (12), pp. 861-870, 2019, ISSN: 1940-6215 (Electronic) 1940-6215 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Adult, Age Factors, Aged, Algorithms, Breast, Breast Density, Breast Neoplasms, Computer-Assisted, Cross-Sectional Studies, diagnosis, diagnostic imaging, epidemiology, Epithelium, Female, Fibrocystic Breast Disease, Humans, Image Interpretation, Image-Guided Biopsy, Logistic Models, Mammography, methods, Middle Aged, pathology, Photon, prevention & control, Risk Factors

Detailed 3-dimensional body shape features predict body composition, blood metabolites, and functional strength: the Shape Up! studies

Ng, B K; Sommer, M J; Wong, M C; Pagano, I; Nie, Y; Fan, B; Kennedy, S; Bourgeois, B; Kelly, N; Liu, Y E; Hwaung, P; Garber, A K; Chow, D; Vaisse, C; Curless, B; Heymsfield, S B; Shepherd, J A

Detailed 3-dimensional body shape features predict body composition, blood metabolites, and functional strength: the Shape Up! studies Journal Article

In: Am J Clin Nutr, 110 (6), pp. 1316-1326, 2019, ISSN: 1938-3207 (Electronic) 0002-9165 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Absorptiometry, Adipose Tissue, Adolescent, Adult, Anthropometry, blood, Body Composition, Cross-Sectional Studies, diabetes, diagnostic imaging, Female, HDL, Humans, Imaging, Insulin, Knee, Lipoproteins, Male, Middle Aged, Obesity, Photon, physiology, Principal Component Analysis, Shape Up, Strength, Three-Dimensional, Triglycerides, Young Adult

Pereira, A; Garmendia, M L; Uauy, R; Neira, P; Lopez-Arana, S; Malkov, S; Shepherd, J

Determinants of volumetric breast density in Chilean premenopausal women Journal Article

In: Breast Cancer Res Treat, 162 (2), pp. 343-352, 2017, ISSN: 1573-7217 (Electronic) 0167-6806 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Absorptiometry, Adult, Breast cancer, Breast Density, Breast Neoplasms, Chile, Computer-Assisted, Cross-Sectional Studies, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, epidemiology, Female, Humans, Image Processing, Mammography, Odds Ratio, Photon, Population Surveillance, Prememopausal women, Premenopause, Risk Factors

Shepherd, J A; Sommer, M J; Fan, B; Powers, C; Stranix-Chibanda, L; Zadzilka, A; Basar, M; George, K; Mukwasi-Kahari, C; Siberry, G

Advanced Analysis Techniques Improve Infant Bone and Body Composition Measures by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Journal Article

In: Journal of Pediatrics, 181 , pp. 248-253 e3, 2017, ISSN: 1097-6833 (Electronic) 0022-3476 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Absorptiometry, Body Composition, Bone and Bones, Bone Density, Bone mineral density, Cross-Sectional Studies, DXA QA/QC, Humans, Infant, metabolism, methods, Newborn, Photon, precision, Reproducibility of Results

Clinical anthropometrics and body composition from 3D whole-body surface scans

Ng, B K; Hinton, B J; Fan, B; Kanaya, A M; Shepherd, J A

Clinical anthropometrics and body composition from 3D whole-body surface scans Journal Article

In: Eur J Clin Nutr, 70 (11), pp. 1265-1270, 2016, ISSN: 1476-5640 (Electronic) 0954-3007 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Absorptiometry, Adult, Anthropometry, Body Composition, Body Surface Potential Mapping, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Photon, Plethysmography, Reproducibility of Results, Shape Up, Young Adult

Bodelon, C; Heaphy, C M; Meeker, A K; Geller, B; Vacek, P M; Weaver, D L; Chicoine, R E; Shepherd, J A; Mahmoudzadeh, A P; Patel, D A; Brinton, L A; Sherman, M E; Gierach, G L

Leukocyte telomere length and its association with mammographic density and proliferative diagnosis among women undergoing diagnostic image-guided breast biopsy Journal Article

In: BMC Cancer, 15 , pp. 823, 2015, ISSN: 1471-2407 (Electronic) 1471-2407 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: 3cb, abnormalities, Adult, Aged, Breast Density, Breast Neoplasms, Cross-Sectional Studies, diagnosis, Female, genetics, Human, Humans, Image-Guided Biopsy, Leukocytes, Mammary Glands, metabolism, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Staging, Risk Factors, Telomere, three-compartment breast

Jones, J A; Hartman, T J; Klifa, C S; Coffman, D L; Mitchell, D C; Vernarelli, J A; Snetselaar, L G; Horn, L Van; Stevens, V J; Robson, A M; Himes, J H; Shepherd, J A; Dorgan, J F

Dietary energy density is positively associated with breast density among young women Journal Article

In: J Acad Nutr Diet, 115 (3), pp. 353-9, 2015, ISSN: 2212-2672 (Print) 2212-2672 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Absorptiometry, Adiposity, Adult, anatomy & histology, Body Composition, Body Mass Index, Breast, Breast cancer, Breast Density, Cross-Sectional Studies, Diet, Dietary energy density, Energy Intake, Feeding Behavior, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, methods, Multivariate Analysis, Photon, physioalogy, physiology, Premenopausal women, ultrastaructure

Jung, S; Stanczyk, F Z; Egleston, B L; Snetselaar, L G; Stevens, V J; Shepherd, J A; Horn, L Van; LeBlanc, E S; Paris, K; Klifa, C; Dorgan, J F

Endogenous sex hormones and breast density in young women Journal Article

In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 24 (2), pp. 369-78, 2015, ISSN: 1538-7755 (Electronic) 1055-9965 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Adult, anatomy & histology, blood, Breast, Breast Neoplasms, Cross-Sectional Studies, epidemiology, Estradiol, Estrogens, Female, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Risk Factors, Testosterone

Mukwasi, C; Chibanda, L Stranix; Banhwa, J; Shepherd, J A

US White and Black Women Do Not Represent the Bone Mineral Density of Sub-Saharan Black Women Journal Article

In: J Clin Densitom, 18 (4), pp. 525-32, 2015, ISSN: 1094-6950 (Print) 1094-6950 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Adult, Africa South of the Sahara, African Continental Ancestry Group, Bmi, Bone Density, Bone mineral density, Cross-Sectional Studies, diagnostic imaging, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Hip, Humans, Lumbar Vertebrae, Osteoporosis, Photon, United States, weight, Zimbabwe

Xie, B; Avila, J I; Ng, B K; Fan, B; Loo, V; Gilsanz, V; Hangartner, T; Kalkwarf, H J; Lappe, J; Oberfield, S; Winer, K; Zemel, B; Shepherd, J A

Accurate body composition measures from whole-body silhouettes Journal Article

In: Medical Physics, 42 (8), pp. 4668-77, 2015, ISSN: 2473-4209 (Electronic) 0094-2405 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Absorptiometry, Adolescent, Age Factors, Algorithms, Anthropometry, Biological, Body Composition, Body Height, Body Weight, Child, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Humans, Linear Models, Male, methods, Models, Photon, Principal Component Analysis, Prospective Studies, Sex Factors, Supine Position, Whole Body Imaging

Gierach, G L; Geller, B M; Shepherd, J A; Patel, D A; Vacek, P M; Weaver, D L; Chicoine, R E; Pfeiffer, R M; Fan, B; Mahmoudzadeh, A P; Wang, J; Johnson, J M; Herschorn, S D; Brinton, L A; Sherman, M E

Comparison of mammographic density assessed as volumes and areas among women undergoing diagnostic image-guided breast biopsy Journal Article

In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 23 (11), pp. 2338-48, 2014, ISSN: 1538-7755 (Electronic) 1055-9965 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: abnormalities, Age Factors, Aged, Body Mass Index, Breast, Breast Density, Breast Neoplasms, Computer-Assisted, Cross-Sectional Studies, diagnostic imaging, epidemiology, Female, Human, Humans, Image Interpretation, Image-Guided Biopsy, Mammary Glands, Menopause, Middle Aged, Organ Size, pathology, Prospective Studies, Radiography, Risk Factors, Smoking

Nardo, L; Lane, N E; Parimi, N; Cawthon, P M; Fan, B; Shepherd, J; Cauley, J; Zucker-Levin, A; Murphy, R A; Katzman, W B

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis association with thoracic spine kyphosis: a cross-sectional study for the Health Aging and Body Composition Study Journal Article

In: Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 39 (24), pp. E1418-24, 2014, ISSN: 1528-1159 (Electronic) 0362-2436 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: African Americans, Aged, complications, Cross-Sectional Studies, diagnostic, diagnostic imaging, Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal, ethnology, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Humans, Hyperostosis, Imaging, Kyphosis, Lumbar Vertebrae, Male, Radiography, Thoracic Vertebrae

Prebil, L A; Ereman, R R; Powell, M J; Jamshidian, F; Kerlikowske, K; Shepherd, J A; Hurlbert, M S; Benz, C C

First pregnancy events and future breast density: modification by age at first pregnancy and specific VEGF and IGF1R gene variants Journal Article

In: Cancer Causes Control, 25 (7), pp. 859-68, 2014, ISSN: 1573-7225 (Electronic) 0957-5243 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: 3cb, abnormalities, Adult, Age Factors, Aged, Breast, Breast Density, Breast Neoplasms, complications, Cross-Sectional Studies, epidemiology, Female, genetics, Genotype, Human, Humans, Hypertension, IGF Type 1, Mammary Glands, Middle Aged, pathology, Polymorphism, Pregnancy, Pregnancy-Induced, Receptor, Single Nucleotide, three-compartment breast, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A

Dorgan, J F; Klifa, C; Deshmukh, S; Egleston, B L; Shepherd, J A; O., Jr. Kwiterovich P.; Horn, L Van; Snetselaar, L G; Stevens, V J; Robson, A M; Lasser, N L; Hylton, N M

Menstrual and reproductive characteristics and breast density in young women Journal Article

In: Cancer Causes Control, 24 (11), pp. 1973-83, 2013, ISSN: 1573-7225 (Electronic) 0957-5243 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: administration & dosage, Adult, Age Factors, anatomy & histology, Breast, Breast Neoplasms, Contraception, Contraceptives, Cross-Sectional Studies, diagnosis, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Hormonal, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Menarche, Menstruation, methods, Multivariate Analysis, Oral, physiology, prevention & control, Reproduction, statistics & numerical data, Surveys and Questionnaires, Time Factors

Dorgan, J F; Klifa, C; Shepherd, J A; Egleston, B L; Kwiterovich, P O; Himes, J H; Gabriel, K; Horn, L; Snetselaar, L G; Stevens, V J; Barton, B A; Robson, A M; Lasser, N L; Deshmukh, S; Hylton, N M

Height, adiposity and body fat distribution and breast density in young women Journal Article

In: Breast Cancer Res, 14 (4), pp. R107, 2012, ISSN: 1465-542X (Electronic) 1465-5411 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Absorptiometry, Adiposity, Adult, Age Factors, Body Fat Distribution, Body Height, Body Weights and Measures, Breast Neoplasms, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Human, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mammary Glands, pathology, Photon, Risk Factors

Katzman, W; Cawthon, P; Hicks, G E; Vittinghoff, E; Shepherd, J; Cauley, J A; Harris, T; Simonsick, E M; Strotmeyer, E; Womack, C; Kado, D M

Association of spinal muscle composition and prevalence of hyperkyphosis in healthy community-dwelling older men and women Journal Article

In: J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 67 (2), pp. 191-5, 2012, ISSN: 1758-535X (Electronic) 1079-5006 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Age Factors, Aged, Body Composition, Bone Density, Cross-Sectional Studies, diagnosis, epidemiology, Female, Humans, Kyphosis, Male, Men's Health, Muscle, Muscular Diseases, physiology, physiopathology, Prevalence, Reference Values, Risk Factors, Sex Distribution, Sex Factors, Skeletal, Spine, United States

Zemel, B S; Leonard, M B; Kelly, A; Lappe, J M; Gilsanz, V; Oberfield, S; Mahboubi, S; Shepherd, J A; Hangartner, T N; Frederick, M M; Winer, K K; Kalkwarf, H J

Height adjustment in assessing dual energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mass and density in children Journal Article

In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 95 (3), pp. 1265-73, 2010, ISSN: 1945-7197 (Electronic) 0021-972X (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Absorptiometry, Adolescent, Adolescent Development, Age Factors, Body Height, Bone and Bones, Bone Density, Child, Child Development, Cross-Sectional Studies, diagnostic imaging, Female, Humans, Male, methods, Photon, physiology, Reference Values, Regression Analysis, Sex Factors

Flegal, K M; Shepherd, J A; Looker, A C; Graubard, B I; Borrud, L G; Ogden, C L; Harris, T B; Everhart, J E; Schenker, N

Comparisons of percentage body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-stature ratio in adults Journal Article

In: Am J Clin Nutr, 89 (2), pp. 500-8, 2009, ISSN: 1938-3207 (Electronic) 0002-9165 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: 80 and over, Absorptiometry, Adipose Tissue, Adiposity, Adult, Aged, Body Composition, Body Mass Index, Cross-Sectional Studies, diagnosis, DXA QA/QC, epidemiology, Female, Health Surveys, Humans, Male, metabolism, methods, Middle Aged, Obesity, Photon, physiology, Predictive Value of Tests, United States, Waist Circumference, Waist-Hip Ratio, Young Adult

Kerlikowske, K; Shepherd, J; Creasman, J; Tice, J A; Ziv, E; Cummings, S R

Are breast density and bone mineral density independent risk factors for breast cancer? Journal Article

In: J Natl Cancer Inst, 97 (5), pp. 368-74, 2005, ISSN: 1460-2105 (Electronic) 0027-8874 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Adult, Aged, Bone Density, Breast, Breast Neoplasms, California, Carcinoma, Case-Control Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, diagnostic imaging, Ductal, etiology, Female, Humans, Ilium, Intraductal, Logistic Models, Mammography, Mass Screening, methods, Middle Aged, Multivariate Analysis, Noninfiltrating, pathology, Registries, Research Design, Risk Factors, Spine